Solar Buildings

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Houses generally refer to a shelter or building that is meant as a dwelling or place for habitation by human beings. “Houses” include many kinds of dwelling ranging from rudimentary huts or nomadic tribes to high-rise apartment buildings.

A major constraint in meeting this demand is the spiraling cost of energy and other changes in climate. Passive solar buildings aim to maintain    interior    thermal comfort throughout the sun’s daily and annual cycles whilst reducing the requirement for active heating and cooling system Passive solar building design is one part of green building design, The scientific basis for passive solar building design has been developed from a combination of climatology, thermodynamics  (particularly heat transfer), and human thermal comfort (for buildings to be inhabited by humans). Specific attention is directed to the site and location of the dwelling, the prevailing climate, design and construction, solar orientation, placement of glazing-and-shading elements, and incorporation of thermal mass. While these considerations may be directed to any building, achieving an ideal solution requires careful integration of these principles.

INTRODUCTION

New construction offers the greatest opportunity for incorporating passive solar design, Passive solar system make use of natural energy flows as the primary means of harvesting solar energy, Passive solar system can provide space heating, cooling load avoidance, natural ventilation and day lighting.
Passive solar design refers to the use of the sun’s energy for the heating and cooling of living spaces. In this approach, the building itself or some element of it takes advantage of natural energy characteristics in materials and air created by exposure to the sun. Passive systems are simple, have few moving parts, and require minimal maintenance and require no mechanical systems
Sun light can provide ample heat, light, and shade and induce summertime ventilation into the well designed home. Passive solar design can reduce heating and cooling energy bills, increase spatial vitality, and improve comfort.
Solar energy is a radiant heat source that causes natural processes upon which all life depends. Some of the natural processes can be managed through building design in a manner that helps heat and cool the building. The basic natural processes that are used in passive solar energy are the thermal energy flows associated with radiation, conduction, and natural convection. When sunlight strikes a building, the building materials can reflect, transmit, or absorb the solar radiation. Additionally, the heat produced by the sun causes air movement that can be predictable in designed spaces. These basic responses to solar heat lead to design elements, material choices and placements that can provide heating and cooling effects in a home.
Passive solar energy means that mechanical means are not employed to utilize solar energy.
To get the most from your home – think sun. That’s right, the sun can heat and cool your home and reduce its energy use. More importantly, the energy from the sun can make your home comfortable year round.
There are two types of solar design systems -passive and active.
Homes constructed as passive solar design use the natural movement of heat and air to maintain comfortable temperatures, operating with little or no mechanical assistance. It’s called passive solar because the design of the home maximizes the benefits it receives from the sun with standard construction features. Passive solar takes advantage of local breezes and landscape features such as shade trees and windbreaks, and uses a simple system to collect and store solar energy with no switches or controls.
On the other hand, active solar systems use mechanical devices such as pumps and fans to move heat from collectors to storage or from storage to use. Photovoltaic panels that collect solar energy, turning it into electricity, are also considered an active solar system.

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